Life Cycle Impact Assessment

Life Cycle Impact Assessment PDF
Author: Michael Z. Hauschild
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9401797447
Size: 31.36 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 339
View: 318

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Life Cycle Impact Assessment

by Michael Z. Hauschild, Life Cycle Impact Assessment Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Life Cycle Impact Assessment books, This book offers a detailed presentation of the principles and practice of life cycle impact assessment. As a volume of the LCA compendium, the book is structured according to the LCIA framework developed by the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO)passing through the phases of definition or selection of impact categories, category indicators and characterisation models (Classification): calculation of category indicator results (Characterisation); calculating the magnitude of category indicator results relative to reference information (Normalisation); and converting indicator results of different impact categories by using numerical factors based on value-choices (Weighting). Chapter one offers a historical overview of the development of life cycle impact assessment and presents the boundary conditions and the general principles and constraints of characterisation modelling in LCA. The second chapter outlines the considerations underlying the selection of impact categories and the classification or assignment of inventory flows into these categories. Chapters three through thirteen exploreall the impact categories that are commonly included in LCIA, discussing the characteristics of each followed by a review of midpoint and endpoint characterisation methods, metrics, uncertainties and new developments, and a discussion of research needs. Chapter-length treatment is accorded to Climate Change; Stratospheric Ozone Depletion; Human Toxicity; Particulate Matter Formation; Photochemical Ozone Formation; Ecotoxicity; Acidification; Eutrophication; Land Use; Water Use; and Abiotic Resource Use. The final two chapters map out the optional LCIA steps of Normalisation and Weighting.


Towards A Methodology For Life Cycle Impact Assessment

Towards a Methodology for Life Cycle Impact Assessment PDF
Author: Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Publisher:
ISBN: 9789056070052
Size: 26.93 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : Environmental impact analysis
Languages : en
Pages : 98
View: 6247

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Towards A Methodology For Life Cycle Impact Assessment

by Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Towards A Methodology For Life Cycle Impact Assessment Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Towards A Methodology For Life Cycle Impact Assessment books,


Life Cycle Assessment Lca

Life Cycle Assessment  LCA  PDF
Author: Walter Klöpffer
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527655646
Size: 24.94 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 440
View: 243

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Life Cycle Assessment Lca

by Walter Klöpffer, Life Cycle Assessment Lca Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Life Cycle Assessment Lca books, This first hands-on guide to ISO-compliant Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) makes this powerful tool immediately accessible to both professionals and students. Following a general introduction on the philosophy and purpose of LCA, the reader is taken through all the stages of a complete LCA analysis, with each step exemplified by real-life data from a major LCA project on beverage packaging. Measures as carbon and water footprint, based on the most recent international standards and definitions, are addressed. Written by two pioneers of LCA, this practical volume is targeted at first-time LCA users but equally makes a much-valued reference for more experienced practitioners. From the content: * Goal and Scope Definition * Life Cycle Inventory Analysis * Life Cycle Impact Assessment * Interpretation, Reporting and Critical Review * From LCA to Sustainability Assessment and more.


Life Cycle Assessment

Life Cycle Assessment PDF
Author: Ralph E Horne
Publisher: CSIRO PUBLISHING
ISBN: 0643099204
Size: 63.42 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 192
View: 5741

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Life Cycle Assessment

by Ralph E Horne, Life Cycle Assessment Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Life Cycle Assessment books, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has developed in Australia over the last 20 years into a technique for systematically identifying the resource flows and environmental impacts associated with the provision of products and services. Interest in LCA has accelerated alongside growing demand to assess and reduce greenhouse gas emissions across different manufacturing and service sectors. Life Cycle Assessment focuses on the reflective practice of LCA, and provides critical insight into the technique and how it can be used as a problem-solving tool. It describes the distinctive strengths and limitations of LCA, with an emphasis on practice in Australia, as well as the application of LCA in waste management, the built environment, water and agriculture. Supported by examples and case studies, each chapter investigates contemporary challenges for environmental assessment and performance improvement in these key sectors. LCA methodologies are compared to the emerging climate change mitigation policy and practice techniques, and the uptake of ‘quick’ LCA and management tools are considered in the light of current and changing environmental agendas. The authors also debate the future prospects for LCA technique and applications.


Environmental Footprint

Environmental Footprint PDF
Author:
Publisher:
ISBN: 9789276171430
Size: 57.96 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category :
Languages : en
Pages :
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Environmental Footprint

by , Environmental Footprint Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Environmental Footprint books, In 2011 the European Commission Joint Research Centre (EC-JRC) published the International Reference Life Cycle Data System (ILCD) Handbook recommendations on the use of Impact Assessment models for use in LCA (EC-JRC, 2011a). This created the basis for the Product and Organisation Environmental Footprint (PEF/OEF) recommendations for impact categories and models as per Recommendation 2013/179/EU on the use of common methods to measure and communicate the life cycle environmental performance of products and organisations (EC, 2013a). This Commission Recommendation is expected to contribute to the Building the Single Market for Green Products (EC, 2013b) by supporting a level playing field regarding the measurement of environmental performance of products and organisations. During the PEF pilot phase (from 2013 to 2018), the model retained and recommended for assessing the impact of elementary flows on freshwater ecotoxicity and human cancer and non-cancer toxicity was the model USEtox® 1.01. However, due to the difficulties encountered in using the model and in interpretation the results, the PEF Technical Advisory Board (TAB) has decided not to include these three impact categories in the list of mandatory impact categories to be used for hotspot analysis and for communication to consumer or to business. The EU Commission Joint Research Centre was then mandated by DG Environment to conduct an in-depth evaluation of the model and data used to calculate characterisation factors (CFs) and to come with a proposal to 1) address the issue reported by the Pilots and 2) increase the number of available characterisation factors. Using the physicochemical and toxicity data available in the REACH, EFSA and PPDB database, and building on the feedback collected during a PEF stakeholder workshop organised in February 2018 and on the preliminary outcomes of the UNEP-SETAC Pellston workshop organised in June 2018 (UNEP- SETAC, 2018), EC-JRC has calculated new freshwater ecotoxicity characterisation factors for 6011 substances, 3423 CFS for human toxicity non-cancer and 621 CFs for human toxicity cancer. The freshwater ecotoxicity, human cancer and non-cancer impact categories are recommended to be used in EF context, level of recommendation III. The report describes the methodology followed to generate those new characterisation factors. Furthermore, a contribution analysis has been performed comparing the contribution to this new CFs versus old ones used in the PEF pilots.


Perspectives In Life Cycle Impact Assessment

Perspectives in Life Cycle Impact Assessment PDF
Author: Patrick Hofstetter
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461551277
Size: 29.54 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 484
View: 1859

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Perspectives In Life Cycle Impact Assessment

by Patrick Hofstetter, Perspectives In Life Cycle Impact Assessment Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Perspectives In Life Cycle Impact Assessment books, Perspectives in Life Cycle Impact Assessment: A Structured Approach to Combine Models of the Technosphere, Ecosphere and Valuesphere describes the relationship between subjective and objective elements in Life Cycle Impact Assessment. It suggests a new framework which will allow people to master two of the major problems associated with LCA, the difficulty of separating subjective from objective elements and the tendency for impact assessment to record `phantoms' rather than actual damages. Perspectives in Life Cycle Impact Assessment: A Structured Approach to Combine Models of the Technosphere, Ecosphere and Valuesphere presents a proposal for a second generation framework and method for Life Cycle Impact Assessment. Many of the suggested elements are either based on other tools for environmental analysis, e.g. risk assessment, or fit in well with tools and concepts such as industrial ecology, technology assessment, or environmental impact assessment. The research presented in this book goes beyond the scope of presently used methods for Life Cycle Assessment and may stimulate new developments in a variety of areas. The book will appeal to persons from a wide range of scientific disciplines who are interested in learning more about Life Cycle Assessment. It will be especially valuable to members of SETAC and to students and researchers in the fields of environmental impact assessment, risk assessment and industrial ecology.


Handbook On Life Cycle Assessment

Handbook on Life Cycle Assessment PDF
Author: Jeroen B. Guinée
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0306480557
Size: 45.56 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 692
View: 4083

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Handbook On Life Cycle Assessment

by Jeroen B. Guinée, Handbook On Life Cycle Assessment Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Handbook On Life Cycle Assessment books, Environmental policy aims at the transition to sustainable production and consumption. This is taking place in different ways and at different levels. In cases where businesses are continuously active to improve the environmental performance of their products and activities, the availability of knowledge on environmental impacts is indispensable. The integrated assessment of all environmental impacts from cradle to grave is the basis for many decisions relating to achieving improved products and services. The assessment tool most widely used for this is the environmental Life Cycle Assessment, or LCA. Before you is the new Handbook of LCA replacing the previous edition of 1992. New developments in LCA methodology from all over the world have been discussed and, where possible, included in this new Handbook. Integration of all developments into a new, consistent method has been the main aim for the new Handbook. The thinking on environment and sustainability is, however, quickly evolving so that it is already clear now that this new LCA Handbook does not embrace the very latest developments. Therefore, further revisions will have to take place in the future. A major advantage of this Handbook is that it now also advises which procedures should be followed to achieve adequate, relevant and accepted results. Furthermore, the distinction between detailed and simplified LCA makes this Handbook more broadly applicable, while guidance is provided as to which additional information can be relevant for specialised applications.