Quantitative Genetics In The Wild

Quantitative Genetics in the Wild PDF
Author: Anne Charmantier
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191655961
Size: 68.51 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 288
View: 1647

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Quantitative Genetics In The Wild

by Anne Charmantier, Quantitative Genetics In The Wild Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Quantitative Genetics In The Wild books, Although the field of quantitative genetics - the study of the genetic basis of variation in quantitative characteristics such as body size, or reproductive success - is almost 100 years old, its application to the study of evolutionary processes in wild populations has expanded greatly over the last few decades. During this time, the use of 'wild quantitative genetics' has provided insights into a range of important questions in evolutionary ecology, ranging from studies conducting research in well-established fields such as life-history theory, behavioural ecology and sexual selection, to others addressing relatively new issues such as populations' responses to climate change or the process of senescence in natural environments. Across these fields, there is increasing appreciation of the need to quantify the genetic - rather than just the phenotypic - basis and diversity of key traits, the genetic basis of the associations between traits, and the interaction between these genetic effects and the environment. This research activity has been fuelled by methodological advances in both molecular genetics and statistics, as well as by exciting results emerging from laboratory studies of evolutionary quantitative genetics, and the increasing availability of suitable long-term datasets collected in natural populations, especially in animals. Quantitative Genetics in the Wild is the first book to synthesize the current level of knowledge in this exciting and rapidly-expanding area. This comprehensive volume also offers exciting perspectives for future studies in emerging areas, including the application of quantitative genetics to plants or arthropods, unraveling the molecular basis of variation in quantitative traits, or estimating non-additive genetic variance. Since this book deals with many fundamental questions in evolutionary ecology, it should be of interest to graduate, post-graduate students, and academics from a wide array of fields such as animal behaviour, ecology, evolution, and genetics.


Evolutionary Quantitative Genetics

Evolutionary Quantitative Genetics PDF
Author: Derek A. Roff
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461540801
Size: 79.27 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 494
View: 3104

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Evolutionary Quantitative Genetics

by Derek A. Roff, Evolutionary Quantitative Genetics Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Evolutionary Quantitative Genetics books, The impetus for this book arose out of my previous book, The Evolution of Life Histories (Roff, 1992). In that book I presented a single chapter on quanti tative genetic theory. However, as the book was concerned with the evolution of life histories and traits connected to this, the presence of quantitative genetic variation was an underlying theme throughout. Much of the focus was placed on optimality theory, for it is this approach that has proven to be extremely successful in the analysis of life history variation. But quantitative genetics cannot be ig nored, because there are some questions for which optimality approaches are inappropriate; for example, although optimality modeling can address the ques tion of the maintenance of phenotypic variation, it cannot say anything about genetic variation, on which further evolution clearly depends. The present book is, thus, a natural extension of the first. I have approached the problem not from the point of view of an animal or plant breeder but from that of one interested in understanding the evolution of quantitative traits in wild populations. The subject is large with a considerable body of theory: I generally present the assumptions underlying the analysis and the results, giving the relevant references for those interested in the intervening mathematics. My interest is in what quantitative genetics tells me about evolutionary processes; therefore, I have concentrated on areas of research most relevant to field studies.


Adaptive Genetic Variation In The Wild

Adaptive Genetic Variation in the Wild PDF
Author: Timothy A. Mousseau
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780195344172
Size: 24.28 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 288
View: 7058

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Adaptive Genetic Variation In The Wild

by Timothy A. Mousseau, Adaptive Genetic Variation In The Wild Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Adaptive Genetic Variation In The Wild books, Two of the great mysteries of biology yet to be explored concern the distribution and abundance of genetic variation in natural populations and the genetic architecture of complex traits. These are tied together by their relationship to natural selection and evolutionary history, and some of the keys to disclosing these secrets lie in the study of wild organisms in their natural environments. This book, featuring a superb selection of papers from leading authors, summarizes the state of current understanding about the extent of genetic variation within wild populations and the ways to monitor such variation. It proposes the idea that a fundamental objective of evolutionary ecology is necessary to predict organism, population, community, and ecosystem response to environmental change. In fact, the overall theme of the papers centers around the expression of genetic variation and how it is shaped by the action of natural selection in the natural environment. Patterns of adaptation in the past and the genetic basis of traits likely to be under selection in a dynamically changing environment is discussed along with a wide variety of techniques to test for genetic variation and its consequences, ranging from classical demography to the use of molecular markers. This book is perfect for professionals and graduate students in genetics, biology, ecology, conservation biology, and evolution.


Natural Selection In The Wild

Natural Selection in the Wild PDF
Author: John A. Endler
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9780691083872
Size: 80.70 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 336
View: 766

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Natural Selection In The Wild

by John A. Endler, Natural Selection In The Wild Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Natural Selection In The Wild books, Natural selection is an immense and important subject, yet there have been few attempts to summarize its effects on natural populations, and fewer still which discuss the problems of working with natural selection in the wild. These are the purposes of John Endler's book. In it, he discusses the methods and problems involved in the demonstration and measurement of natural selection, presents the critical evidence for its existence, and places it in an evolutionary perspective. Professor Endler finds that there are a remarkable number of direct demonstrations of selection in a wide variety of animals and plants. The distribution of observed magnitudes of selection in natural populations is surprisingly broad, and it overlaps extensively the range of values found in artificial selection. He argues that the common assumption that selection is usually weak in natural populations is no longer tenable, but that natural selection is only one component of the process of evolution; natural selection can explain the change of frequencies of variants, but not their origins.


Quantitative Genetics Genomics And Plant Breeding

Quantitative Genetics  Genomics  and Plant Breeding PDF
Author: Manjit S. Kang
Publisher: CABI
ISBN: 9780851997872
Size: 50.60 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 432
View: 203

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Quantitative Genetics Genomics And Plant Breeding

by Manjit S. Kang, Quantitative Genetics Genomics And Plant Breeding Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Quantitative Genetics Genomics And Plant Breeding books, This book provides an overview of the rapidly developing integration and interdependence of quantitative genetics, genomics, bioinformatics and their application to plant breeding. Chapters have been developed from a symposium held in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, in March 2001, although additional contributions have also been commissioned especially for this volume. The main topics covered include: quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping, genomics, bioinformatics and marker-assisted selection; tissue culture and alien introgression for crop improvement; and advances in genotype by environment interaction/stability analysis.


Conservation And The Genetics Of Populations

Conservation and the Genetics of Populations PDF
Author: Fred W. Allendorf
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118408578
Size: 58.87 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 632
View: 215

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Conservation And The Genetics Of Populations

by Fred W. Allendorf, Conservation And The Genetics Of Populations Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Conservation And The Genetics Of Populations books, Loss of biodiversity is among the greatest problems facing theworld today. Conservation and the Genetics of Populationsgives a comprehensive overview of the essential background,concepts, and tools needed to understand how genetic informationcan be used to conserve species threatened with extinction, and tomanage species of ecological or commercial importance. Newmolecular techniques, statistical methods, and computer programs,genetic principles, and methods are becoming increasingly useful inthe conservation of biological diversity. Using a balance of dataand theory, coupled with basic and applied research examples, thisbook examines genetic and phenotypic variation in naturalpopulations, the principles and mechanisms of evolutionary change,the interpretation of genetic data from natural populations, andhow these can be applied to conservation. The book includesexamples from plants, animals, and microbes in wild and captivepopulations. This second edition contains new chapters on Climate Change andExploited Populations as well as new sections on genomics, geneticmonitoring, emerging diseases, metagenomics, and more. One-third ofthe references in this edition were published after the firstedition. Each of the 22 chapters and the statistical appendix have aGuest Box written by an expert in that particular topic (includingJames Crow, Louis Bernatchez, Loren Rieseberg, Rick Shine, andLisette Waits). This book is essential for advanced undergraduate and graduatestudents of conservation genetics, natural resource management, andconservation biology, as well as professional conservationbiologists working for wildlife and habitat managementagencies. Additional resources for this book can be found at: ahref="http://www.wiley.com/go/allendorf/populations"www.wiley.com/go/allendorf/populations/a.


Quantitative Genetics In Maize Breeding

Quantitative Genetics in Maize Breeding PDF
Author: Arnel R. Hallauer
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781441907660
Size: 33.66 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 664
View: 1994

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Quantitative Genetics In Maize Breeding

by Arnel R. Hallauer, Quantitative Genetics In Maize Breeding Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Quantitative Genetics In Maize Breeding books, Maize is used in an endless list of products that are directly or indirectly related to human nutrition and food security. Maize is grown in producer farms, farmers depend on genetically improved cultivars, and maize breeders develop improved maize cultivars for farmers. Nikolai I. Vavilov defined plant breeding as plant evolution directed by man. Among crops, maize is one of the most successful examples for breeder-directed evolution. Maize is a cross-pollinated species with unique and separate male and female organs allowing techniques from both self and cross-pollinated crops to be utilized. As a consequence, a diverse set of breeding methods can be utilized for the development of various maize cultivar types for all economic conditions (e.g., improved populations, inbred lines, and their hybrids for different types of markets). Maize breeding is the science of maize cultivar development. Public investment in maize breeding from 1865 to 1996 was $3 billion (Crosbie et al., 2004) and the return on investment was $260 billion as a consequence of applied maize breeding, even without full understanding of the genetic basis of heterosis. The principles of quantitative genetics have been successfully applied by maize breeders worldwide to adapt and improve germplasm sources of cultivars for very simple traits (e.g. maize flowering) and very complex ones (e.g., grain yield). For instance, genomic efforts have isolated early-maturing genes and QTL for potential MAS but very simple and low cost phenotypic efforts have caused significant and fast genetic progress across genotypes moving elite tropical and late temperate maize northward with minimal investment. Quantitative genetics has allowed the integration of pre-breeding with cultivar development by characterizing populations genetically, adapting them to places never thought of (e.g., tropical to short-seasons), improving them by all sorts of intra- and inter-population recurrent selection methods, extracting lines with more probability of success, and exploiting inbreeding and heterosis. Quantitative genetics in maize breeding has improved the odds of developing outstanding maize cultivars from genetically broad based improved populations such as B73. The inbred-hybrid concept in maize was a public sector invention 100 years ago and it is still considered one of the greatest achievements in plant breeding. Maize hybrids grown by farmers today are still produced following this methodology and there is still no limit to genetic improvement when most genes are targeted in the breeding process. Heterotic effects are unique for each hybrid and exotic genetic materials (e.g., tropical, early maturing) carry useful alleles for complex traits not present in the B73 genome just sequenced while increasing the genetic diversity of U.S. hybrids. Breeding programs based on classical quantitative genetics and selection methods will be the basis for proving theoretical approaches on breeding plans based on molecular markers. Mating designs still offer large sample sizes when compared to QTL approaches and there is still a need to successful integration of these methods. There is a need to increase the genetic diversity of maize hybrids available in the market (e.g., there is a need to increase the number of early maturing testers in the northern U.S.). Public programs can still develop new and genetically diverse products not available in industry. However, public U.S. maize breeding programs have either been discontinued or are eroding because of decreasing state and federal funding toward basic science. Future significant genetic gains in maize are dependent on the incorporation of useful and unique genetic diversity not available in industry (e.g., NDSU EarlyGEM lines). The integration of pre-breeding methods with cultivar development should enhance future breeding efforts to maintain active public breeding programs not only adapting and improving genetically broad-based germplasm but also developing unique products and training the next generation of maize breeders producing research dissertations directly linked to breeding programs. This is especially important in areas where commercial hybrids are not locally bred. More than ever public and private institutions are encouraged to cooperate in order to share breeding rights, research goals, winter nurseries, managed stress environments, and latest technology for the benefit of producing the best possible hybrids for farmers with the least cost. We have the opportunity to link both classical and modern technology for the benefit of breeding in close cooperation with industry without the need for investing in academic labs and time (e.g., industry labs take a week vs months/years in academic labs for the same work). This volume, as part of the Handbook of Plant Breeding series, aims to increase awareness of the relative value and impact of maize breeding for food, feed, and fuel security. Without breeding programs continuously developing improved germplasm, no technology can develop improved cultivars. Quantitative Genetics in Maize Breeding presents principles and data that can be applied to maximize genetic improvement of germplasm and develop superior genotypes in different crops. The topics included should be of interest of graduate students and breeders conducting research not only on breeding and selection methods but also developing pure lines and hybrid cultivars in crop species. This volume is a unique and permanent contribution to breeders, geneticists, students, policy makers, and land-grant institutions still promoting quality research in applied plant breeding as opposed to promoting grant monies and indirect costs at any short-term cost. The book is dedicated to those who envision the development of the next generation of cultivars with less need of water and inputs, with better nutrition; and with higher percentages of exotic germplasm as well as those that pursue independent research goals before searching for funding. Scientists are encouraged to use all possible breeding methodologies available (e.g., transgenics, classical breeding, MAS, and all possible combinations could be used with specific sound long and short-term goals on mind) once germplasm is chosen making wise decisions with proven and scientifically sound technologies for assisting current breeding efforts depending on the particular trait under selection. Arnel R. Hallauer is C. F. Curtiss Distinguished Professor in Agriculture (Emeritus) at Iowa State University (ISU). Dr. Hallauer has led maize-breeding research for mid-season maturity at ISU since 1958. His work has had a worldwide impact on plant-breeding programs, industry, and students and was named a member of the National Academy of Sciences. Hallauer is a native of Kansas, USA. José B. Miranda Filho is full-professor in the Department of Genetics, Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz - University of São Paulo located at Piracicaba, Brazil. His research interests have emphasized development of quantitative genetic theory and its application to maize breeding. Miranda Filho is native of Pirassununga, São Paulo, Brazil. M.J. Carena is professor of plant sciences at North Dakota State University (NDSU). Dr. Carena has led maize-breeding research for short-season maturity at NDSU since 1999. This program is currently one the of the few public U.S. programs left integrating pre-breeding with cultivar development and training in applied maize breeding. He teaches Quantitative Genetics and Crop Breeding Techniques at NDSU. Carena is a native of Buenos Aires, Argentina. http://www.ag.ndsu.nodak.edu/plantsci/faculty/Carena.htm


Maternal Effects In Mammals

Maternal Effects in Mammals PDF
Author: Dario Maestripieri
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 0226501221
Size: 64.55 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 352
View: 936

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Maternal Effects In Mammals

by Dario Maestripieri, Maternal Effects In Mammals Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Maternal Effects In Mammals books, Evolutionary maternal effects occur whenever a mother’s phenotypic traits directly affect her offspring’s phenotype, independent of the offspring’s genotype. Some of the phenotypic traits that result in maternal effects have a genetic basis, whereas others are environmentally determined. For example, the size of a litter produced by a mammalian mother—a trait with a strong genetic basis—can affect the growth rate of her offspring, while a mother’s dominance rank—an environmentally determined trait—can affect the dominance rank of her offspring. The first volume published on the subject in more than a decade, Maternal Effects in Mammals reflects advances in genomic, ecological, and behavioral research, as well new understandings of the evolutionary interplay between mothers and their offspring. Dario Maestripieri and Jill M. Mateo bring together a learned group of contributors to synthesize the vast literature on a range of species, highlight evolutionary processes that were previously overlooked, and propose new avenues of research. Maternal Effects in Mammals will serve as the most comprehensive compendium on and stimulus for interdisciplinary treatments of mammalian maternal effects.


Evolution Of Wild Emmer And Wheat Improvement

Evolution of Wild Emmer and Wheat Improvement PDF
Author: E. Nevo
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540417507
Size: 18.57 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 364
View: 1226

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Evolution Of Wild Emmer And Wheat Improvement

by E. Nevo, Evolution Of Wild Emmer And Wheat Improvement Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Evolution Of Wild Emmer And Wheat Improvement books, Wild emmer is the progenitor of most cultivated wheats and thus an important source of wheat improvement. This book draws the results from multidisciplinary studies on the ecological, genetic, genomic, agronomic, and evolutionary aspects of wild emmer, conducted at many labs around the world. It is divided into the following parts: Origin and Evolution of Wheat - Population Genetics of Wild Emmer Wheat at the Protein and DNA Levels - Genetic Resources of Wild Emmer for Wheat Improvement - Genome Organization and Genetic Mapping - Conclusions and Prospects. The authors describe the evolution of wild emmer as a model organism of a selfer in evolutionary biology, and its rich potential genetic resources for wheat improvement.


Biotechnology And Genetics In Fisheries And Aquaculture

Biotechnology and Genetics in Fisheries and Aquaculture PDF
Author: Andy Beaumont
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0470995181
Size: 51.18 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 176
View: 6685

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Biotechnology And Genetics In Fisheries And Aquaculture

by Andy Beaumont, Biotechnology And Genetics In Fisheries And Aquaculture Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Biotechnology And Genetics In Fisheries And Aquaculture books, The recent development of molecular biology and genetic techniques, in particular those that are increasingly being used in practical situations in fish biology, fisheries and aquaculture, has led to a gap in the understanding by many of the science behind these techniques and their correct implementation for maximum results. The authors of this important book, Andy Beaumont and Kate Hoare, have written a text of great clarity, which carefully explains the science and application of molecular and genetic techniques to fisheries and aquaculture situations and what these new technologies have to offer. Contents include a full explanation of genetic variation and its measurement, genetic structure in natural populations, genetics and artificial selection in the hatchery, ploidy manipulation and the use of genetic engineering in aquaculture. Biotechnology and Genetics in Fisheries and Aquaculture is of great use to biological sciences students, particularly those studying marine, freshwater and aquatic biology, fish biology, fisheries, aquaculture, population biology and genetics. The book is also extremely useful as a reference to personnel such as fish farmers and fisheries scientists and all those working in fisheries and aquaculture management and research. Libraries in all universities and research establishments where biological sciences, fisheries and aquaculture are studied and taught should have copies of this book on their shelves.