The Concept Of Probability In The Mathematical Representation Of Reality

The Concept of Probability in the Mathematical Representation of Reality PDF
Author: Hans Reichenbach
Publisher: Open Court Publishing Company
ISBN:
Size: 14.59 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Mathematics
Languages : en
Pages : 154
View: 6965

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The Concept Of Probability In The Mathematical Representation Of Reality

by Hans Reichenbach, The Concept Of Probability In The Mathematical Representation Of Reality Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download The Concept Of Probability In The Mathematical Representation Of Reality books, The first English translation of Hans Reichenbach's lucid doctoral thesis sheds new light on how Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason was understood in some quarters at the time. The source of several themes in his still influential The Direction of Time, the thesis shows Reichenbach's early focus on the interdependence of physics, probability, and epistemology.


Tychomancy

Tychomancy PDF
Author: Michael Strevens
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674075986
Size: 15.20 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 280
View: 263

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Tychomancy

by Michael Strevens, Tychomancy Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Tychomancy books, Michael Strevens makes three claims about rules for inferring physical probability. They are reliable. They constitute a key part of the physical intuition that allows us to navigate the world safely in the absence of scientific knowledge. And they played a crucial role in scientific innovation, from statistical physics to natural selection.


Einstein S Jewish Science

Einstein s Jewish Science PDF
Author: Steven Gimbel
Publisher: JHU Press
ISBN: 142140575X
Size: 56.33 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 256
View: 2415

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Einstein S Jewish Science

by Steven Gimbel, Einstein S Jewish Science Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Einstein S Jewish Science books, There are some senses, Gimbel claims, in which Jews can find a special connection to E = mc2, and this claim leads to the engaging, spirited debate at the heart of this book.


Causality And Chance In Modern Physics

Causality and Chance in Modern Physics PDF
Author: David Bohm
Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press
ISBN: 9780812210026
Size: 53.68 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 170
View: 1195

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Causality And Chance In Modern Physics

by David Bohm, Causality And Chance In Modern Physics Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Causality And Chance In Modern Physics books, In this classic, David Bohm was the first to offer us his causal interpretation of the quantum theory. Causality and Chance in Modern Physics continues to make possible further insight into the meaning of the quantum theory and to suggest ways of extending the theory into new directions.


Logic In Reality

Logic in Reality PDF
Author: JOSEPH BRENNER
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402083750
Size: 14.84 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 362
View: 2391

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Logic In Reality

by JOSEPH BRENNER, Logic In Reality Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Logic In Reality books, This book is both dif?cult and rewarding, affording a new perspective on logic and reality, basically seen in terms of change and stability, being and becoming. Most importantly it exemplifies a mode of doing philosophy of science that seems a welcome departure from the traditional focus on purely analytic arguments. The author approaches ontology, metaphysics, and logic as having offered a number of ways of constructing the description of reality, and aims at deepening their relationships in a new way. Going beyond the mere abstract and formal aspects of logical analysis, he offers a new architecture of logic that sees it as applied not only to the “reasoning processes” belonging to the first disciplinary group – ontology – but also directly concerned with en- ties, events, and phenomena studied by the second one – metaphysics. It is the task of the book to elaborate such a constructive logic, both by offering a lo- cal view of the structure of the reality in general and by proffering a wealth of models able to encompass its implications for science. In turning from the merely formal to the constructive account of logic Brenner overcomes the limitation of logic to linguistic concepts so that it can be not only a logic “of” reality but also “in” that reality which is constitutively characterized by a number of fundamental dualities (observer and observed, self and not-self, internal and external, etc.


The Blank Swan

The Blank Swan PDF
Author: Elie Ayache
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9780470661765
Size: 56.39 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 496
View: 4869

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The Blank Swan

by Elie Ayache, The Blank Swan Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download The Blank Swan books, "Elie Ayache is the only person to present arguments about The Black Swan and rare events that I had not thought about. He does what philosophical inquiry has always done: to go the extra mile and look at the world in a deeply philosophical way." Nassim Nicholas Taleb, PhD, author of The Black Swan, Distinguished Professor, New York University Polytechnic Institute & Principal, Universa Investments. "Elie Ayache has uniquely straddled the down-to-earth world of money and complex financial derivatives and the abstract world of the mind and philosophy. Insightful and insane in equal measures, this book is not an easy read. I wouldn't recommend this for holiday reading on the beach but perhaps for while sitting in front of a log fire with a large Scotch, or probably several.??? Paul Wilmott, author of Frequently Asked Questions in Quantitative Finance October 19th 1987 was a day of huge change for the global finance industry. On this day the stock market crashed, the Nobel Prize winning Black-Scholes formula failed and volatility smiles were born, and on this day Elie Ayache began his career, on the trading floor of the French Futures and Options Exchange. Experts everywhere sought to find a model for this event, and ways to simulate it in order to avoid a recurrence in the future, but the one thing that struck Elie that day was the belief that what actually happened on 19th October 1987 is simply non reproducible outside 19th October 1987 - you cannot reduce it to a chain of causes and effects, or even to a random generator, that can then be reproduced or represented in a theoretical framework. The Blank Swan is Elie's highly original treatise on the financial markets – presenting a totally revolutionary rethinking of derivative pricing and technology. It is not a diatribe against Nassim Taleb's The Black Swan, but criticises the whole background or framework of predictable and unpredictable events – white and black swans alike – , i.e. the very category of prediction. In this revolutionary book, Elie redefines the components of the technology needed to price and trade derivatives. Most importantly, and drawing on a long tradition of philosophy of the event from Henri Bergson to Gilles Deleuze, to Alain Badiou, and on a recent brand of philosophy of contingency, embodied by the speculative materialism of Quentin Meillassoux, Elie redefines the market itself against the common perceptions of orthodox financial theory, general equilibrium theory and the sociology of finance. This book will change the way that we think about derivatives and approach the market. If anything, derivatives should be renamed contingent claims, where contingency is now absolute and no longer derivative, and the market is just its medium. The book also establishes the missing link between quantitative modelling (no longer dependent on probability theory but on a novel brand of mathematics which Elie calls the mathematics of price) and the reality of the market."


Mathematical Theory Of Probability And Statistics

Mathematical Theory of Probability and Statistics PDF
Author: Richard von Mises
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 1483264025
Size: 29.72 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Mathematics
Languages : en
Pages : 708
View: 1818

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Mathematical Theory Of Probability And Statistics

by Richard von Mises, Mathematical Theory Of Probability And Statistics Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Mathematical Theory Of Probability And Statistics books, Mathematical Theory of Probability and Statistics focuses on the contributions and influence of Richard von Mises on the processes, methodologies, and approaches involved in the mathematical theory of probability and statistics. The publication first elaborates on fundamentals, general label space, and basic properties of distributions. Discussions focus on Gaussian distribution, Poisson distribution, mean value variance and other moments, non-countable label space, basic assumptions, operations, and distribution function. The text then ponders on examples of combined operations and summation of chance variables characteristic function. The book takes a look at the asymptotic distribution of the sum of chance variables and probability inference. Topics include inference from a finite number of observations, law of large numbers, asymptotic distributions, limit distribution of the sum of independent discrete random variables, probability of the sum of rare events, and probability density. The text also focuses on the introduction to the theory of statistical functions and multivariate statistics. The publication is a dependable source of information for researchers interested in the mathematical theory of probability and statistics


Concepts And Methods Used In Labor Force Statistics Derived From The Current Population Survey

Concepts and Methods Used in Labor Force Statistics Derived from the Current Population Survey PDF
Author: United States. Bureau of the Census
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 48.72 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Labor supply
Languages : en
Pages : 15
View: 3635

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Concepts And Methods Used In Labor Force Statistics Derived From The Current Population Survey

by United States. Bureau of the Census, Concepts And Methods Used In Labor Force Statistics Derived From The Current Population Survey Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Concepts And Methods Used In Labor Force Statistics Derived From The Current Population Survey books, Describes the concepts and methods used in the Census Bureau's Current Population Survey which is conducted each month with a scientifically selected sample representing the noninstitutional civilian population of the United States. This survey.


Carnap Tarski And Quine At Harvard

Carnap  Tarski  and Quine at Harvard PDF
Author: Greg Frost-Arnold
Publisher: Open Court
ISBN: 0812698371
Size: 36.58 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 270
View: 7184

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Carnap Tarski And Quine At Harvard

by Greg Frost-Arnold, Carnap Tarski And Quine At Harvard Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Carnap Tarski And Quine At Harvard books, During the academic year 1940-1941, several giants of analytic philosophy congregated at Harvard: Bertrand Russell, Alfred Tarski, Rudlof Carnap, W. V. Quine, Carl Hempel, and Nelson Goodman were all in residence. This group held regular private meetings, with Carnap, Tarski, and Quine being the most frequent attendees. Carnap, Tarski, and Quine at Harvard allows the reader to act as a fly on the wall for their conversations. Carnap took detailed notes during his year at Harvard. This book includes both a German transcription of these shorthand notes and an English translation in the appendix section. Carnap’s notes cover a wide range of topics, but surprisingly, the most prominent question is: if the number of physical items in the universe is finite (or possibly finite), what form should scientific discourse, and logic and mathematics in particular, take? This question is closely connected to an abiding philosophical problem, one that is of central philosophical importance to the logical empiricists: what is the relationship between the logico-mathematical realm and the material realm studied by natural science? Carnap, Tarski, and Quine’s attempts to answer this question involve a number of issues that remain central to philosophy of logic, mathematics, and science today. This book focuses on three such issues: nominalism, the unity of science, and analyticity. In short, the book reconstructs the lines of argument represented in these Harvard discussions, discusses their historical significance (especially Quine’s break from Carnap), and relates them when possible to contemporary treatments of these issues. Nominalism. The founding document of twentieth-century Anglophone nominalism is Goodman and Quine’s 1947 “Steps Toward a Constructive Nominalism.” In it, the authors acknowledge that their project’s initial impetus was the conversations of 1940-1941 with Carnap and Tarski. Frost-Arnold's exposition focuses upon the rationales given for and against the nominalist program at its inception. Tarski and Quine’s primary motivation for nominalism is that mathematical sentences will be ‘unintelligible’ or meaningless, and thus perniciously metaphysical, if (contra nominalism) their component terms are taken to refer to abstract objects. Their solution is to re-interpret mathematical language so that its terms only refer to concrete entities—and if the number of concreta is finite, then portions of classical mathematics will be considered meaningless. Frost-Arnold then identifies and reconstructs Carnap’s two most forceful responses to Tarski and Quine’s view: (1) all of classical mathematics is meaningful, even if the number of concreta is finite, and (2) nominalist strictures lead to absurd consequences in mathematics and logic. The second is familiar from modern debates over nominalism, and its force is proportional to the strength of one’s commitment to preserving all of classical mathematics. The first, however, has no direct correlate in the modern debate, and turns upon the question of whether Carnap’s technique for partially interpreting a language can confer meaningfulness on the whole language. Finally, the author compares the arguments for and against nominalism found in the discussion notes to the leading arguments in the current nominalist debate: the indispensability argument and the argument from causal theories of reference and knowledge. Analyticity. Carnap, Tarski, and Quine’s conversations on finitism have a direct connection to the tenability of the analytic-synthetic distinction: under a finitist-nominalist regime, portions of arithmetic—a supposedly analytic enterprise—become empirical. Other portions of the 1940-41 notes address analyticity directly. Interestingly, Tarski’s criticisms are more sustained and pointed than Quine’s. For example, Tarski suggests that Gödel’s first incompleteness theorem furnishes evidence against Carnap’s conception of analyticity. After reconstructing this argument, Frost-Arnold concludes that it does not tell decisively against Carnap—provided that language is not treated fundamentally proof-theoretically. Quine’s points of disagreement with Carnap in the discussion notes are primarily denials of Carnap’s premises without argument. They do, however, allow us new and more precise characterizations of Carnap and Quine’s differences. Finally, the author forwards two historical conjectures concerning the radicalization of Quine’s critique of analyticity in the period between “Truth by Convention” and “Two Dogmas.” First, the finitist conversations could have shown Quine how the apparently analytic sentences of arithmetic could be plausibly construed as synthetic. Second, Carnap’s shift during his semantic period toward intensional analyses of linguistic concepts, including synonymy, perhaps made Quine, an avowed extensionalist, more skeptical of meaning and analyticity. Unity of Science. The unity of science movement originated in Vienna in the 1920s, and figured prominently in the transplantation of logical empiricism into North America in the 1940s. Carnap, Tarski, and Quine’s search for a total language of science that incorporates mathematical language into that of the natural and social sciences is a clear attempt to unify the language of science. But what motivates the drive for such a unified science? Frost-Arnold locates the answer in the logical empiricists’ antipathy towards speculative metaphysics, in contrast with meaningful scientific claims. I present evidence that, for logical empiricists over several decades, an apparently meaningful assertion or term is metaphysical if and only if that assertion or term cannot be incorporated into a language of unified science. Thus, constructing a single language of science that encompasses the mathematical and natural domains would ensure that mathematical entities are not on par with entelechies and Platonic Forms. The author explores various versions of this criterion for overcoming metaphysics, focusing on Carnap and Neurath. Finally, I consider an obstacle facing their strategy for overcoming metaphysics: there is no effective procedure to show that a given claim or term cannot be incorporated within a language.


Mathematical Handbook For Scientists And Engineers

Mathematical Handbook for Scientists and Engineers PDF
Author: Granino A. Korn
Publisher: Courier Corporation
ISBN: 0486320235
Size: 74.70 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 1152
View: 3401

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Mathematical Handbook For Scientists And Engineers

by Granino A. Korn, Mathematical Handbook For Scientists And Engineers Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Mathematical Handbook For Scientists And Engineers books, Convenient access to information from every area of mathematics: Fourier transforms, Z transforms, linear and nonlinear programming, calculus of variations, random-process theory, special functions, combinatorial analysis, game theory, much more.